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ALL examinations of Grade 1 and above contain a THEORY section contain worth 10% of the available marks for each examintion. It is expected that pupils will learn the required theory at home.
GYMNASTIC DANCE REQUIREMENTS AND THEORY
Candidates for Gymnastic Dance examinations must be able to perform ALL the tricks listed for that grade SAFELY and IN TIME WITH MUSIC.
CLASS GRADE (Pre - Primary)
a) CARTWHEEL (may be as 'bunny hop')
Candidates must place both hands on the floor and ‘kick’ or ‘flip’ over one foot followed by the other, leading with first one hand and then the other.
b) HANDSTAND (assisted by teacher if necessary)
Teacher / assistant may support candidate throughout if necessary to encourage confidence in inversion.
c) TUCKED SHOULDER STAND
To be taken from squat position, to sitting with knees tucked in, to shoulders where legs must be extended with feet stretched and touching floor. Candidates may use their hands to assist balance.
d) PREPARATION FOR INVERSION ('Bunny Hops and Bunny Flips')
(Travelling in small groups): execute 4 bunny hops showing full extension of legs and feet. Then spring onto hands (both feet leave the ground simultaneously) and recover, repeat (NOTE candidates are NOT expected to achieve a vertical body line during inversion and knees should be deliberately flexed).
a) CARTWHEEL (BOTH WAYS): Both legs to be extended as far as possible, but not necessarily perfectly straight.
b) FORWARD ROLL: To be taken from standing to standing, commencing in squat position. Head must NOT touch the floor.
c) SHOULDER STAND: From standing, sit via squat, roll until legs and body are vertical above shoulders using hands for balance if necessary, legs fully stretched
d) LOWER SUPPORT: to be taken from seated position
e) BALANCES: candidates must prepare and present a series of 8 balances to music
a) CHOREOGRAPHED SERIES OF GROUP BALENCES (to music)
b) CARTWHEEL, FORWARD ROLL, CIRCLE ROLL, UPSTART
a) BRIDGE FROM STANDING
a) HANSTAND INTO FORWARD ROLL
b) BACKWARD ROLL TO STRADDLE
c) BACKBEND FROM STANDING (one leg)
d) ELBOW BALANCE TO BRIDGE AND RECOVER
e) HANDSTAND TO BRIDGE AND RECOVER
a) FORWARD WALKOVER
b) TURNING BRIDGE
c) ONE - HANDED CARTWHEEL(using both 1st and 2nd hand)
d) BALANCES - shoulder leg, arabesque, back catch, birdie
a) PASSING WALKOVER
c) TICK TOCK
d) BACKWARD WALKOVER
e) BALANCES - straddle, elbow, pike, chest
TRICKS: bridge, handstand, headstand, cartwheel, backward roll
TRICKS: handstand into forward roll, backbend from standing (one leg), backward roll to straddle, one handed cartwheel, elbow balance
TRICKS: forward wlakover, turning bridge, tick tock, backward walkover, balances
TRICKS: forward walkover, passing forward walkover, hand balance (3 seconds), backbend to elbow balance, tick tock, walking split
TRICKS: backward walkover to split, tinsica, spot walkover, chest balance
TRICKS: one - handed forward and bacward walkover, 3 spot walkovers in series, aeriel cartwheel, backward roll to hanstand, passing back and forward walkover to split, scissor cut walkover
Theory is marked under the section entitled 'Responses and Knowledge of Syllabus'. Each candidate may be asked up to 2 questions in any one examination. Questions from previous grades may be asked.
1. Give an example of any of the following arm lines: OPPOSITION, PARALLEL, COORDINATED. There are several of each at different heights
2. Q: On the side stretch do your hips move? A: No, the hips must be still.
3. Q: When lying on the floor on your back (spine), what must you be careful to do? A: Think of pressing the spine to the floor.so there is no space between the floor and your back.
4. Q: In the exercise 'preparation for turns', what must you be sure to use? A: The head and eyes by 'spotting'.
1. Q: On the forward body stretch, what must you be careful NOT to do? A: We ust not push the hips backwards.
2. Q: On the back bend what must you be careful NOT to do? A: We must not push the hips forwards.
3. Q: In the controlled thigh exercise, which part of our body is used to stand up? A: Our thighs and NOT our backs.
4: Q: When contracting in the preparatory exercise for contraction, where is the head held? A: The chin must be lowered or tucked towards the chest.
5. Q: When kicking, is the supporting leg flexed or stretched? A: It is straight and fully pulled up.
6. Q: Describe the back leg in a split leap. A: It is straight and fully extended.
1. What is an isolation? A: The use of only one part of the body.
2. In the 'general conditioning exercise', in what position must the feet be placed during the lunge? A: The feet are straight (parallel) to maximise the stretch.
3. Q: When lifting head and shoulders during the contraction and abdominal exercise, where must the head be placed? A: Chin tucked towards the chest to prevent straining the neck.
4. Q: What do you understand from the word 'contraction'? A: It literally means 'to shorten' and refers to the squeezing or tightening of muscles.
5. Q: Is the leg turned out in the 'side extension' exercise? A: Yes, the leg is turned out in 2nd position to maximise movement in the hip socket.
1. Q: Define the word 'rhythm'. A: The regular occurence on an accented beat or beats in a bar of music.
2. Why do we use a variety of arm lines in dance? A: To develop style and presentation and to aid balance.
3. Q: Describe the position of the body inas you bend the knees in the 'Body Roll' exercise. A: The back is held erect and the knees are parallel over the toes.
4. Q: In the exercise for turns, where is the chasse placed? A: Sideways to ensure that travel is in a straight diagonal line (to the corner).
5. Candidates must be aware of all stage directions.
1. Q: Why does a dance class start with a warm up? A: Warm - up increases circulation to ensure the carriage of more oxygen and nutrients to all parts of the body, helping to prevent injury.
2. Q: Give a definition of 'syncopation'.A: Displacing the natural accent. This could mean the movement of an accent from a strong to a weak beat in the music OR accenting a beat that would not normally be accented.
3. Q: What is meant by 'lyrical' arm lines? A: Soft and flowing with a balletic quality.
4. Q: Describe and demonstrate the position of the body in a forward body stretch. A: The body bends forward from the hip showing a flat back (like a table top) with the weight remaining over the legs but not swinging back into the heels.
5. Q: In the abdominal and stretch exercise, when stretching sideways, what must the dancer be careful to do? A: Keep both hips on the floor to maintain turnout.
6. Q: When performing inward and outward round kicks what must the dancer be acreful to do? A: Ensure the working leg is turned out as it passes through second position.
Theory is marked under the section entitled 'Responses and Knowledge of Syllabus'.
Each candidate maybe asked up to 2 questions in any one examination. Questions from previous grades may be asked.
1) Demonstrate and announce the 5 positions of the feet (taught in class)
2) Demonstrate and announce the 5 positions of the arms and demi-seconde (taught in class)
3) Demonstrate the direction and announce each fixed point of the stage from 1 to 8 (taught in class)
4) Q: Why is the 1st position of arms sometimes known as ‘the gateway’?A: Because all other arm positions may be approached by going through this position
5) Q: How much distance should be between the 2 hands when the arms are in bras bas, 1st or 5th position? A: About the width of the face.
6. Q: Explain the meaning of the following terms: DEVANT = in front. DERRIERE = behind
1) Explain the meaning of the following terms and demonstrate the appropriate movements.
Plier = To bend
Sauter = To jump
Relever = To rise
Retirer = To withdraw
Frapper = To strike
En avant = forward
En arriere = backward
A la seconde = to the second position
Pointe tendu = fully extend the working leg and foot with the toe to the ground
Rond de jambe a terre = a circling of the leg with the toe to the ground. This exercise helps to increase turn - out from the hip.
2) Q: Describe the placing of the heel in pointe tendu en avant or en arriere. A: The working heel must be in the centre, opposite the supporting heel
1) Explain the meaning of the following terms and demonstrate the appropriate movements
Glisser = To slide or glide
Etendre = To extend or stretch
Tourner = To turn
Elancer = To dart (demonstrating a soubresaut en avant)
Assemler = to assemlble or join together
Petit = small
Grand = large
2) Q: In développé en avant and in développé en arrière, the working foot passes through 4 main positions. Which positions are these? A: The cou de pied, the retiré passé, attitude en l’air, (devant or derrière) before extending to a fully stretched 4th position en l’air.
Explain the meaning and demonstrate the concept of the following terms:
1) En face = facing (the audience or Point 1)
2) Croisé = crossed. When the dancer faces Point 2 or Point 8 with the downstage leg placed forward, it is perceived by the audience to have crossed the upstage leg.
3) Effacé = effaced or erased. When the dancer faces Point 2 or Point 8 with the upstage leg placed forward, the audience can see the whole of both legs. I is perceived by the audience to be in an open (no longer crossed) position in relation to the downstage leg.
4) Ecarté = literally: 'spread wide apart'. This is a very broad pose.The dancer stands diagonally to the audience and places the leg a la seconde with the head in profile.
5) Fermer = to close. This usually refers to the closing of a foot from an open position to either 1st, 3rd or 5th position.
6) Q: In 1st or 2nd position of feet en face, in what position is the head? A: En face to Point 1.
8) Q: In 3rd, 4th or 5th positions of the feet en face, in what position is the head? A: 1/8 turned to the side of the front foot.
1) Explain the meaning of and demonstrate the movements that exemplify the following terms :
Fondu = Melted
En dehors = Outwards
En dedans = Inwards
Raccourci = Shortened
Balancer = To swing, sway or rock
Battu = Beaten
Cou de pied = Ankle (Literally : neck of foot)
En premier = In 1st position
En quatrième = In 4th position
En cinquième = In 5th position
2) Q: In rond de jambe en l’air en dehors, what pattern of movement is formed by the fully stretched foot of the raised leg? A: The pattern of movement resembles the shape of a bow, (as in a bow & arrow).
1) Explain the meaning of and demonstrate the movements that exemplify the following terms :
Pirouette = literally 'spin' or 'whirl'. This is a turn on one leg with the other off the ground in any position but most commonly in passe. It is performed en dedans (towrds the supporting leg) or en dehors (waay from the supporting leg).
Epaulement = Placement of the shoulders so that one is forward and one back, with the head turned or inclined over the forward shoulder.
2) Q: In the cou de pied position for développés and for petits battements, the muscles of the buttocks must be tightly pulled up - Why is this this? A::
3) Q: When the leg passes through the attitude position in développés, which parts of the body should be very strongly held and which parts should be relaxed? A: :
4) Q: In the croisé or the effacé alignment, where is the position of the head? A:: To the side of the front shoulder, facing Point 1.
Straight Tap: Hit the ground with the ball of the foot, finishing in the air, using the ankle only.
Forward Tap: Hit the ground with the ball of the foot, finishing forward and in the air, using the ankle only.
Backward Tap: Hit the ground with the ball of the foot, finishing behind and in the air, using the ankle only.
Stamp: A heavy downward movement onto the flat of the foot. The weight can be on the working or supporting foot.
Hop: Stand on one foot, bend knee and lift into the air, landing on the ball of the same foot.
Spring: Stand on one foot, bend knee and lift into the air, landing lightly on the ball of the other foot.
Drop: Stand on one foot, bend knee and lift into the air, landing heavily onto the ball or flat of the other foot.
Jump: Stand feet together, bend knees and spring into the air, landing on the balls of the feet in any direction.
Heel Tap: Bend knee, hit the ground with the heel, finishing in the air.
Can be done in three ways: Standing on one foot, with ball of working foot on ground, or as a sharp dig.
Heel Beat: As in heel tap, but the heel finishes on the ground and is heavier.
Toe Tap: Stand on one leg the other knee bent behind, hit the ground with the toe, finishing in the air.
Toe Beat: As in toe tap, but the toe finishes on the ground and is heavier.
Ball Tap: Hit the ground with the ball of the foot, finishing in the air. Can be done in three ways: Standing on one foot, with heel of working foot on ground, or as a sharp dig.
Ball Beat: As in ball tap, but the ball finishes down and is heavier.
Shuffle: A forward and backward tap, counted &1 or less (&a or &&).
Ball Change: A transfer of weight from the ball of one foot to the ball or flat of the other foot, counted &1 or less
Ball tap - strike ground with ball of foot and up sharply, can be taken 3 ways: standing on one foot, with heel of working foot on ground or as a sharp dig.
Ball beat – As in BALL TAP but ball finishes down and the movement is heavier in tone.
Heel tap - flex knee, strike ground with ball of foot and up sharply. Can be taken 3 ways: standing on one foot, with ball of working foot on ground or as a sharp dig.
Toe beat – Flex knee, strike ground with toe finishing down and with heavier tone than toe tap Forward brush – broader movement than FORWARD TAP with swing coming from the knee and hip
Backward brush – broader movement than BACKWARD TAP with swing coming from the knee and hip Stomp – stand on the ball of one foot, push foot forward ending with a heavy heel beat
Scuff – a flat stamp carried forward and off the ground, supporting knee flexed
Tap spring – a forward tap followed immediately by a spring. Travelled or on one spot and very lightly executed.
Pick up – stand with feel slightly apart. Turn up the toe of one foot. Slap the foot backwards, hitting the ground with the ball and removing the heel. Cannot be repeated as both feet must be down for a pick - up.
Pick up step – a pick - up followed immediately by a step. Can be repeated on alternate feet.
4 beat cramp roll – spring onto RF, ball dig LF, heel beat RF, heel beat LF
5 beat cramp roll – tap spring onto RF, ball dig LF, heel beat RF, heel beat LF
Pick up spring– a pick - up follwed immediately by a spring. Cannot be repeated as both feet must be down for a pick - up
Pick - up hop - a pick - up follwed immediately by a hop. Cannot be repeated as both feet must be down for a pick - up
Flap – a forward tap followed immediately by a stamp. Weight on suppporting or working foot.
Opposition arms - the most natural movement, based on the law of balance with both arms swinging in opposite directions. The direction of opposition is determined by the head.
Parallel arms – both arms make 2 straight lines which move in the same direction and are always an equal distance apart.
Co ordinated arms – both arms move in the same direction at the same time. The lines may be low, medium, or high.
Horizontal arms – the arm line forms a right - angle to the body an arm line forming a right angle to the body
Pick up on one foot – stand on one foot, flex knee, turn up the toe of the same foot, slap the foot back with elevation, hitting the ground with the ball and removing the heel before landing on the ball of the same foot.
Pick up change – stand on one foot, flex knee, turn up the toe of the same foot, slap the foot back with elevation, hitting the ground with the ball and removing the heel before landing on the ball of the other foot.
Pull back – pick - up RF, pick - up change LF onto RF, ball dig LF
6 beat cramp roll – tap spring RF, tap spring LF, heel beat Rf, heel beat LF
3 beat ripple – stand on one foot: pick - up change preceded by forward tap
3 beat riff – stand on one foot: forward brush RF, heel dig RF, ball beat RF
Toe clip – stand with feet slightly apart. Lift the balls of both feet; clip toes together and finish with ball beat RF & LF
Heel clip – stand with feet slightly apart. Lift the heels of both feet; clip heels together and finish with heel beat RF & LF
Wing preparation – Stand with feet together. Using the ankle, slide RF out to the side by scraping the outside edge of the foot along the ground, finishing off the floor. Tap ball of RF inwards towards LF, ending with RF replaced beside LF.
3 beat wing from both feet – Feet together. Flex knees. Use ankles to shoot both feet outwards by scraping outside edges of feet along the ground, finishing off the floor. Tap balls of feet inwards and land on balls of both feet.
3 beat wing from one foot – Stand on one foot. Flex knee. Use ankle to shoot supporting foot outwards by scraping outside edge of foot along the ground, finishing off the floor. Tap ball of foot inwards and land on ball of same foot.
3 beat wing change – Stand on one foot. Flex knee. Use ankle to shoot supporting foot outwards by scraping outside edge of foot along the ground, finishing off the floor. Tap ball of foot inwards and land on ball of other foot.
Syllabus steps: All steps from previous grades, 4 Beat wing from one foot with toe tap or heel beat, 5 Beat wing from one foot
Candidates will be asked to demonstrate certain steps from the Tap Glossary and define them.The answers do not have to be an exact repetitionof those written but should convey the same meaning. Alternatively, questions may be asked arising from the definitions:-
eg. Q. Where does the wing action come from in the wing?
A. The wing action comes from using the actions.
A Candidate may be asked a maximum of three questions in any one examination taken from this Grade and the previous Grades.
Questions will be asked from any previous grade.
Theory for Contemporary Dance is marked under the 'choreography' section. Contemporary choreography, including the selection of appropriate music, is the responsibility of the candidate. The teacher will observe and comment on each student's choreography BUT time will generally NOT be available during scheduled classes to work on individual choreographic pieces.
Candidates must prepare a short piece to their selection of appropriate music (WITHOUT LYRICS) containing the following moves connected with any appropriate linking movements: walk - stop - roll - contract - lean - turn
Candidates must prepare their own short piece of original choreography to their selection of appropriate music (WITHOUT LYRICS), approximately 1 minute long. This piece should be based on a stimulus and candidates will be expected to discuss their choreographic ideas and approach with the examiner.
Solo dance lasting 1 minute. Stimulus: a photograph which must be taken in to the examination. Questions will be asked on choreographic process, musical selection and development of movement from the stimulus.